وکیل جرایم سایبری

آرمان عدالت

Some levels and dimensions of poverty

Poverty has been considered by various scholars in various aspects, and has raised the following levels:

1. Lack of basic needs: The most common approach to defining poverty is to identify basic human needs. The most important nutritional requirements are the food needed to get a level of energy. The lowest and most important level of poverty is food poverty. Subsequently, deprivation is provided for other needs such as clothing, housing, health and education.

2. Absolute and Relative Poverty: Absolute Poverty is defined as the continuation of survival or the minimum of life. A set of goods and services that is essential for the life of a family, and the boundary between poor and non-poor is considered. The relative poverty of a person's income is lower than the average income of the community (Schiller, 2001: 16-17). Relative poverty is a contractual concept and has different definitions in different societies.

3. Human PovertyThis type of poverty, which is characterized by the Human Poverty Index (HPI), is based on the degree of deprivation of the community in three basic areas of life, namely life expectancy, knowledge and awareness, and acceptable living standards.

4. Deprivation of capabilities. In this view, poverty is not just a low income, and it is referred to as deprivation of basic capabilities. Poverty-based programs are attempting to reduce or eliminate the underlying causes of poverty. The development of general education, health care and, in other words, the promotion of quality of life through the improvement of human development indicators have been suggested as the best solutions in this regard.

It should be noted that poverty has been considered by the thinkers in quantitative and qualitative terms. One of the main signs of realizing social justice is the elimination of various types of poverty. A serious question about our country is which of these levels of poverty there is more in the country? Should the fight be a priority of a particular type? Where should you start?

برچسب‌ها: Poverty، justice

An Introduction to Poverty in Iran

Poverty is an ominous phenomenon that has a long history in human history.The great problem and illness that has focused on the minds of many politicians and scientists.Poverty has shown itself to be the simplest and most mundane level of destruction and degradation of its human body, and has brought human evolution into serious threat to its highest level. In Iran, for many reasons, poverty alleviation policies have been pursued without a proper compass, and this can be largely due to poor understanding of the causes of poverty in the country and in the world.

Since the "philosophy of poverty" has been written by Proudhon 160 years ago, in which poverty is due to the lack of respect and the exercise of community justice as a value for the work of the people, it has long been known for poverty.Many efforts have been made in this direction, but there is still a problem. Even Karl Marx's answer to Proudhon, in the form of "poverty of philosophy," refers to this important issue that, as long as it is difficult to identify poverty itself, one can not understand what poverty is and who is poor, and what policies to solve it. In religious literature, we also refer to the phrase "Red Death", which implies many losses that this problem can have for a person and society.To treat the disease in the country, it must first be recognized and then administered appropriately. In the subsequent notes, this issue is followed up.

MohammadReza Armanmehr

برچسب‌ها: فقر، Poverty

توزیع درآمد(2)

 دو تقسیم کلی در حیطه نظریه پردازی توزیع درآمد وجود دارد: توزیع درآمد عواملی(Functional distribution of Income) چگونگی توزیع درآمد را بین سرمایه گذاران، کارگران و مالکان یا موجران توضیح می دهد. اما توزیع درآمد مقداری(Size distribution of Income) چگونگی توزیع مجموع درآمد بین مردم یا خانوارها را بیان می نماید، بدون این که به چگونگی کسب درآمد، موقعیت جغرافیایی یا منابع شغلی درآمد توجه کند(روزن،1378: 359). عدالت اقتصادی مستلزم آن است که توزیع درآمد عواملی و مقداری، شاخص های مناسب و عادلانه ای داشته باشند.
تئوری های تبیین توزیع درآمد در بین اشخاص ناشی از دو مکتب عمده هستند، اولی مکتب آمار نظری است که ایجاد درآمد را با کمک فرایندهای تصادفی تبیین می کند، که تنها توضیحی ناقص از فرایند ایجاد درآمد است، افرادی مثل گیبرات(Gibrat, 1931)، روی(Roy, 1950) و چامپر ناون (Champernowne, 1953) از نمایندگان این مکتب هستند. مکتب دوم که مکتب اجتماعی- اقتصادی است، توزیع درآمد را با استفاده از عوامل نهادی و اقتصادی مثل جنس، آموزش، اشتغال و... تبیین می نماید. نمایندگان آن افرادی چون مینسر(Mincer, 1958) و تین برگن(Tinbergen, 1975) بوده اند(کاکوانی). روشن است که در بحث عدالت اقتصادی به طور جدی به رویکرد دوم نیاز مبرم است، هرچند مکتب آمار نظری می تواند تکمیل کننده باشد.
نکته آخر این که تفاوت دو مفهوم بی عدالتی در توزیع درآمد(Unfair Incom Distribution) و فقر(Poverty) در این است که مفهوم فقر به پایین ترین طبقه در رتبه بندی توزیع درآمد مرتبط است، اما بی عدالتی در توزیع درآمد با تمامی طبقات درآمدی ارتباط می یابد.